Many different tribal groups and chiefdoms, involving an array of beliefs and unique cultures over thousands of years, built mounds as expressions of their cultures. Some well-understood examples are the Adena culture of Ohio, West Virginia, and parts of nearby states. After the last ice age, small groups of people with little organization other than what might be expected in a family structure appeared across Ohio. The Pipe was found by Henry Mann in 1916. Ohio has always been a much sought after resource: fertile land capable of supporting a wide variety of plants which meant there were a wide variety of animals both big and small that survived on these plants. Many were constructed with large diameter circles attached to a rectangular. Birmingham, Robert A. and Leslie E. Eisenberg (2000), Lewis, Theodore H. (1886) "The 'Monumental Tortoise' Mounds of 'Dee-Coo-Dah'", harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSilverberg1969 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFKennedy1994 (. For example, Caleb Atwater's misunderstanding of stratigraphy caused him to believe that the Mound Builders were a much older civilization than known Native Americans. While the Natural Americans were here, and there's no evidence that they departed or morphed into another group, but that they were here when another group began filtering in from the south. When the people that became known as the Mound Builders first arrived in Ohio, they already had their religious beliefs firmly entrenched in their daily lives. , Other people believed that Greeks, Africans, Chinese, or assorted Europeans built the mounds. It is the major site among 100 associated with the Poverty Point culture and is one of the best-known early examples of earthwork monumental architecture. They just became a nuisance to either farming or building a town. It took lots of effort to create a ceremonial mound and so it was reserved for people in their culture deserving of such effort. Sunflower and natural grasses were being cultivated. In the Natchez Bluffs area, the Taensa and Natchez people had held out against Mississippian influence and continued to use the same sites as their ancestors, and the Plaquemine culture is considered directly ancestral to these historic period groups encountered by Europeans. There seems to have been some common design elements used in these earthworks which was primarily a very large circular structure attached to an even larger rectangular embankment. Maturin Le Petit, a Jesuit priest, met the Natchez people as did Le Page du Pratz (1758), a French explorer. That excavated mound became known as the Adena Mound. The oldest mound associated with the Woodland period was the mortuary mound and pond complex at the Fort Center site in Glade County, Florida. Near the southern edge of the new city stood a large conical mound. 2012 excavations and dating by Thompson and Pluckhahn show that work began around 2600 BCE, seven centuries before the mound-builders in Ohio. Before this area became overly developed, Squier and Davis (19th century archeological surveyors) mapped out 6 considerably larger earthwork sites (non-burial constructions) and 6 other sites of approximately the same size as the National Park site. De Soto observed people living in fortified towns with lofty mounds and plazas, and surmised that many of the mounds served as foundations for priestly temples.  Middle Archaic mound construction seems to have ceased about 2800 BCE, and scholars have not ascertained the reason, but it may have been because of changes in river patterns or other environmental factors.. These were the first people that gained sustenance off the land.  Research and study of these cultures and peoples has been based mostly on archaeology and anthropology. Since so few burial sites have ever been discovered, it is possible they were cremated or some other mortuary practice that did not leave any traces of the individual. Curtis Dahl, "Mound-Builders, Mormons, and William Cullen Bryant", harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSquier1849 (. A New York Timesarticle from 1897 described a mound in Wisconsin in which a giant human skeleton measuring over 9 feet (2.7 m) in length was found. We see this in their mortuary practices which have been found all over the state in great numbers. We just don't know. Mounds constructed along the Muskingum River are strikingly similar to those found on Kelleys Island.