62. in the Swell at First Mennonite Church, Berne, Indiana, USA; The bow tremolo will later be adopted in the context of a highly expressive style of composition, often explicitly in imitation of the organ tremulant.20, These decades see many printed occurrences of vocal and instrumental undulations in the works of Lodovico Zacconi, Giovanni Battista Bovicelli, Francesco Rognoni, and others. Greta Moens-Haenen, Das Vibrato in der Musik des Barocks (Graz, 1988), 129-139, 253-270. Return to text. A typical form is shown in Audsley's illustration reproduced here LXVI. A tremulant is also essential, which must be Michael Praetorius, Syntagma Musicum 3 (WolfenbÃ¼ttel, 1619), 229-231. 10. 53. Surprisingly, this early fiffaro is not a beating set of detuned pipes, but a tremolante nel canale. "Questo tremolo deve essere succinto, e vago; percheÌ lâingordo e forzato tedia, e fastidisce: Ed eÌ di natura tale che usandolo, sempre usar si deve; acciocheÌ lâuso si converti in habito; percheÌ quel continuo muover di voce aiuta, e volentieri spinge la mossa delle gorge, e facilita mirabilmente i principij de passaggi." Return to text. 60. Michael Praetorius, Syntagma Musicum 2 (WolfenbÃ¼ttel, 1619), 161-203. The early origins of the Italian voce umana have misguided some authors to view this stop as an isolated, obsolete device of the sixteenth century, linked perhaps to a distant and forgotten way of singing. It is sometimes hard to deduce, merely from the preserved specifications of instruments that are no longer extant, which of the systems was in use in each case. 25. Charles William Wallace, "The Children of the Chapel at Blackfriars 1597â1603," The University Studies of the University of Nebraska 8: No. ["Something similar is observed in the tremulant of the organ, which does not change the tone of each pipe, and which can only have been invented to imitate the singing voice by that circumstance, something that it does only in a quite imperfect way."] Return to text. John Dowland, Andreas Ornithoparcus His Micrologus (London, 1609), 88. The brochure about the instrument, printed by Johann Friderich Walther, mentions "one tremulant and separately a mild Schwebung for the Voce Humana" because "a strong tremulant would force such a subtle voice and make it unpleasant. While organ builders have tried for half a millenium to When this Schwebung occurs between two unison pipes a few Hz apart, the perceived effect is that of a unique pulsating sound.14, Martin Agricola conveys his great enthusiasm for instrumental and vocal tremblings from 1529 on15, expressing his hope to hear more undulating organs in his native Germany, and providing one of the earliest mentions of "trembling breath" as a basic element in the performance of wind instruments.16 This distinctive, not exclusively ornamental quality of Swiss fifes or transverse flutes explains why the earliest detuned stops in Italy are called fiffari, probably invented by Vincenzo Colombi, first mentioned in Padua, 1544, and Udine, 1547. establishes a tonal goal Franchinus Gaffurius, Practica musicae (Milan, 1496), fol.
Morsolino was against the change of pitch, but very enthusiastic about the tremolo. Pier Paolo Donati, âCorpus documentario sulla manifattura degli organi in Italia dal XIV al XVII secolo, II. Return to text. Experiments in the twentieth century, by Carl Seashore, Milton Metfessel and others, show that the complex array of phenomena now known as vibrato might not be experienced in the same way by different listeners. Schulze (Kassel-Leipzig, 1969), 368-369. New York, USA; Aeolian-Skinner 1970. M2. The Voix Humaine was a standard voice in the Grand Orgue Already in 1511, Arnolt Schlick calls this beating Schwebung, a long-lived word in the history of vocal and instrumental undulations. Letter from Wolfgang A. Mozart to Leopold Mozart, Paris, 12 June 1778: "Die Menschenstimme zittert schon selbst, aber so, in einem solchen Grade, daÃ es schÃ¶n ist, das ist die Natur der Stimme. ("and finally [tune] the voce umana with the treble principal, taking care to make this stop slightly sharp, allowing, when united with the principal, to obtain the tremolo thanks to which it is expected to imitate a human voice").
7. Return to text. 35. division of the French Classic organ, carefully adjusted. 22. Organ makers did not have the habit of detailing specifications, and virtually all church organs were destroyed for various reasons from 1534 to 1666. Return to text. The Division Viol (1665), 10. But Giordano Riccati in 176764 and Carlo Gervasoni in 180065 clearly show a prevailing link between detuned beatings and vocal undulations in their own time. Giovanni Battista Doni, "Trattato della musica scenica," Deâ Trattati di Musica di Gio. ibid., 230â231: "doch nicht also / wie etliche in Schulen gewohnet seyn / sondern mit besonderer moderation." âLâHydraulis dalla voce âgarganteâ di Giambattista Della Porta e altri accessori âliriciâ per lâorgano c. 1560-1860,â Informazione Organistica 18 (2007), 211â237.
One could easily be misled into interpreting these special "harmonic flowers" as exceptional ornaments in the context of a "default" straight tone. The organ of five stops has no 2', which is somewhat unusual for an organ from the eighteenth century.
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