News: elasmosaurus vs plesiosaurus

/Title (�� E l a s m o s a u r u s v s p l e s i o s a u r u s) Their necks were the longest of all the plesiosaurs, with anywhere between 32 and 76 (Albertonectes) cervical vertebrae. Plesiosaur anatomy was sufficiently well known at the time that Cope should not have made the mistake, according to Davidson. The paddles at the front (the pectoral paddles) were longer than those at the back (the pelvic paddles). The surface (or facet) where the axis articulated with the next vertebra had an oval outline, and an excavation for the neural canal in the middle of its upper edge. [28] Ketchum and Benson's 2010 analysis included Elasmosaurus in the former group. /Creator (�� w k h t m l t o p d f 0 . /Rect [417.120000 542 478.560000 552.559999 ] /Type /Action At close to 50 feet long, Elasmosaurus was one of the biggest plesiosaurs of the Mesozoic Era, though still not a match for the largest representatives of other marine reptile families (the ichthyosaurs, pliosaurs, and mosasaurs), some of which could weigh up to 50 tons. /Rect [417.120000 500.719999 558.240000 511.279999 ] These vertebrae were almost circular in shape, and the first two bore a narrow keel in the middle of the upper side. /F6 6 0 R Turner died unexpectedly at Fort Wallace on July 27, 1869, without seeing the completion of the work he began, but Cope continued to write him, unaware of his death until 1870. of Scania (S. Sweden)", "Геологическое распространенiе эласмозавровъ", "Mesozoic marine reptiles of Russia and other former Soviet republics", "Ueber Saurierreste aus den Quiriquina−Schichten", "Notice of some Saurian Fossils discovered by J. H. Hood, Esq., at Waipara, Middle Island, New Zealand", "A new elasmosaur from the Eagle Ford Shale of Texas", "On the reptilian orders, Pythonomorpha and Streptosauria", 10.1666/0022-3360(2004)078<0973:PDAPPO>2.0.CO;2, 10.1671/0272-4634(2003)23[104:TEPACF]2.0.CO;2, "A new elasmosaurid (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Bearpaw Shale (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian) of Montana demonstrates multiple evolutionary reductions of neck length within Elasmosauridae", "Bone histology of aquatic reptiles: what does it tell us about secondary adaptation to an aquatic life? /CreationDate (D:20180324121125-04'00') Only one incomplete Elasmosaurus skeleton is definitely known, consisting of a fragmentary skull, the spine, and the pectoral and pelvic girdles, and a single species is recognized today; other species are now considered invalid or have been moved to other genera. 15 0 obj The first of these vertebrae was used as a doorstop in a tailor's shop, whereas the other was found in a pit by Samuel Lockwood, a superintendent. /URI ( Therefore, they probably gave live-birth (viviparity) to their young like sea snakes. They weighed up to several tons. [91] Several different functions have been proposed for gastroliths, including aiding in digestion, mixing food content, mineral supplementation, and storage and buoyancy control. >> >> I would LOVE to be able to get over there to do a large scale acoustics study and see if we had any over lap in the recordings. He considered Simolestes a possible ancestor of Elasmosaurus. [79] Ketchum and Benson's 2010 analysis included Elasmosaurus in the former group. I worked on a project in college where we recorded underwater noises in Lake Champlain, and several other large lakes with monster lore in Canada and we found some very interesting instances of echo location that matched nothing science had previously recorded.

The pre-and post-zygapophyses of the neck vertebrae, processes that articulated adjacent vertebrae so they fit together, were of equal length; the former reached entirely over the level of the centrum whereas the latter reached only with their back half. Elasmosaurus not Plesiosaurus survivability is still possible. Though Cope had originally recognized Elasmosaurus as a plesiosaur, in an 1869 paper he placed it, with Cimoliasaurus and Crymocetus, in a new order of sauropterygian reptiles. /Rect [430.560000 646.639999 551.519999 657.199999 ] A crest (also termed ridge or keel) ran longitudinally along the side of the neck vertebrae (a feature typical of elasmosaurids), visible from the third to the fifty-fifth vertebrae, at the hind part of the neck. McAllister Butte, Pierre Shale, Logan County, Kansas, USA.

s�o� u/��u/nl�6��W���)NY����� ?~��=m8)���� $D�b�8�n?@���. The centra, or "bodies", of these vertebrae were co-ossified in the holotype specimen, which indicates it was an adult. [75] These genera had all previously been considered to be elasmosaurids by Carpenter, Großmann, and other researchers. A new elasmosaurid from the early Maastrichtian of Angola and the implications of girdle morphology on swimming style in plesiosaurs. The occasional presence of seals is one of the theories to explain the Loch Ness Monster, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. The maxillae (largest tooth bearing bone of the upper jaw) of elasmosaurids usually contained 14 teeth, whereas the dentaries (the main part of the lower jaws) usually contained 17 to 19. [24] Finally, two exceptionally large dorsal vertebrae collected by Charles Sternberg in 1895 were named E. sternbergii by Williston, but were considered indeterminate by Storrs. What are the chances a small population of remnant dinosaurs may have survived in Africa? >> /URI ( This cast was later copied by the company Triebold Paleontology Incorporated, and replicas were provided to other museums. /A << Williston named this as a new species, E. [16] He again made reference to a new species of Elasmosaurus, from Kansas, in 1908. >> Elasmosaurus held the record for the greatest number of neck vertebrae (72) in any plesiosaur until the description of Albertonectes (which has 76) in 2012. Except for the mandatory weird blip that may or may not be a log, of course.

(?) /A << Cope had also discovered another large skeleton that bore great resemblance to the known remains of E. orientalis from the black shale of the "Cretaceous bed No. >> 19 0 obj Elasmosaurus is known from the Pierre Shale formation, which represents marine deposits from the Western Interior Seaway.

The snout was rounded and almost formed a semi-circle when viewed from above, and the premaxillae (which form the front of the upper jaw) bore a low keel at the midline. sachalinensis, Pervushov and colleagues considered E. amalitskii an indeterminate elasmosaurid. /Border [0 0 0] The neck of Elasmosaurus is estimated at 7.1 meters (23 ft) in length;[21] thus, Elasmosaurus and its relative Albertonectes were some of the longest-necked animals ever to have lived, with the largest number of neck vertebrae of any known vertebrate animals. [87], One study found that the necks of elasmosaurids were capable of 75–177˚ of ventral movement, 87–155° of dorsal movement, and 94–176° of lateral movement, depending on the amount of tissue between the vertebrae, which probably increased in rigidness towards the back of the neck. Thus, he renamed the species E. snowii. The two teeth at the front were smaller than the succeeding ones, and were located between the first two teeth in the dentaries of the lower jaws. Yes my great, great, great, Grandparents where not drunk, okey maybe there were but, Nessie is real, she's a plessiosaur.

It is uncertain how many teeth Elasmosaurus had, due to the fragmentary state of the fossils. Food sources are another problem. [2], Today, the incomplete holotype specimen, catalogued as ANSP 10081, is the only definite specimen of Elasmosaurus. /Parent 2 0 R ", "Computer Simulations Imply Forelimb-Dominated Underwater Flight in Plesiosaurs", "The four-flipper swimming method of plesiosaurs enabled efficient and effective locomotion", "An integrated approach to understanding the role of the long neck in plesiosaurs", "Functional morphology and hydrodynamics of plesiosaur necks: Does size matter? Just saying. [80], Topology A: Benson et al. Loch Ness isn't the only place reputed to have aquatic monsters roaming about. Here, the pre-zygapophyses also reached over the level of the centra for most of their length, while the post-zygapophyses reached over this level by half their length. It was a reptile with a big body and a long neck, and it hunted fish in the prehistoric oceans. 10 Facts About Elasmosaurus, Ancient Marine Reptile, Bob Strauss is a science writer and the author of several books, including "The Big Book of What, How and Why" and "A Field Guide to the Dinosaurs of North America. There are known examples of nearly one hundred percent aquatic amphibians, including the Giant Chinese and Japanese salamanders, which can reach lengths of five feet. >> 21 0 obj The circumstances around Turner's discovery of the type specimen were not covered in Cope's report, and remained unknown until Turner's letters were published in 1987. Measuring 10.3 meters (34 ft) long, Elasmosaurus would have had a streamlined body with paddle-like limbs, a short tail, a small head, and an extremely long neck. /Rect [445.919999 571.759999 530.399999 582.319999 ] [17][18], Although the placement of Elasmosaurus in the Elasmosauridae remained uncontroversial, opinions on the relationships of the family became variable over subsequent decades. /S /URI Kalmiya from North America on May 07, 2012: Thanks for your interesting hub cryptid. stream Ini berbeda dari semua plesiosaurus lain dengan memiliki enam gigi per premaksila (tulang di ujung moncong) dan 71 ruas tulang leher (cervical). endobj Brown's diagnosis of elasmosaurids included the presence of five premaxillary teeth; the ornamentation of teeth by longitudinal ridges; the presence of grooves surrounding the occipital condyles; and the broad-bodied scapulae meeting at the midline. He considered Elasmosauridae to be closest to the Pliosauridae, noting their relatively narrow coracoids as well as their lack of interclavicles or clavicles. [2], The vertebrae that transitioned between the neck and back (or dorsal) vertebrae in the pectoral region of plesiosaurs, close to the front margin of the forelimb girdle, are often termed pectoral vertebrae. Plesiosaurs were marine creatures that needed to hunt large numbers of fish to survive. When Elasmosaurus was first discovered no-one had ever seen anything like it. [20], Though the only known specimen of Elasmosaurus (holotype specimen ANSP 10081) is fragmentary and missing many elements, related elasmosaurids show it would have had a compact, streamlined body, long, paddle-like limbs, a short tail, a proportionately small head, and an extremely long neck. >> [26] He distinguished E. orientalis from E. platyurus by the more strongly developed processes known as parapophyses on the vertebrae, in which he considered it to approach closer to Cimoliasaurus; however, he still assigned it to Elasmosaurus on account of its large size and angled sides. (?) Confusingly, the name "plesiosaur" also encompasses the pliosaurs ("Pliocene lizards," even though they lived tens of millions of years before), which possessed more hydrodynamic … [35], Cope discovered another elasmosaurid skeleton in 1876. /Border [0 0 0] /Font << [2] Like other elasmosaurids (and plesiosaurs in general), Elasmosaurus would have had large, paddle-like limbs with very long digits. /URI ( Cope, upon receiving the bones at the Academy of Natural Sciences, considered them yet another species of Elasmosaurus.

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