Invasion was imminent and Ptolemy and Arsinoe spent the winter of 274/3 BC reinforcing the defences in the eastern Nile Delta. During Ptolemy II's reign, the material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height.
Each nome also had its own strategos (general), who was in charge of the troops settled in the nome and answered directly to the king.. ", "Cleopatra, Arsinoe, and the Implications", "Phrenology and "Scientific Racism" in the 19th Century", http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/tv_and_radio/article5931845.ece, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arsinoe_IV&oldid=986748970, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from May 2017, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox royalty with unknown parameters, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Pockley.S: Video of a bust of Arsinoë IV being copied Nov 2012, This page was last edited on 2 November 2020, at 19:51.
Cleopatra’s Little Sister.
" Furthermore, craniometry as used by Thür to determine race is based in scientific racism that is now generally considered a pseudoscience that supported "exploitation of groups of people" to "perpetuate racial oppression" and "distorted future views of the biological basis of race.".
A writer from The Times described the identification of the skeleton as "a triumph of conjecture over certainty". As Antigonus expanded his power through mainland Greece, Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II positioned themselves as defenders of 'Greek freedom' from Macedonian aggression.
Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! At the top of the hierarchy, in Alexandria, there were a small group of officials, drawn from the king's philoi (friends). Arsinoe was born to Ptolemy XII somewhere around 68/67 BC. However, Ptolemy XIII had Pompey killed at Pelousion and sent his severed head to Caesar. The plan seems to have been for him to rendezvous with the Spartan army and then use their combined forces to isolate and expel the Antigonid garrisons at Sounion and Piraeus which held the Athenians in check.
The procession for Dionysus alone contained dozens of festival floats, each pulled by hundreds of people, including a four-metre high statue of Dionysus himself, several vast wine-sacks and wine krateres, a range of tableaux of mythological or allegorical scenes, many with automata, and hundreds of people dressed in costume as satyrs, sileni, and maenads.
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (The Father-loving God, born 62/61 BCE, died 47 BCE) was pharaoh of Egypt from 51 BCE until his death.His reign began as co-ruler with his sister, the famous Cleopatra VII, following the wishes of their father, Ptolemy XII Auletes.Ptolemy battled with Julius Caesar for control of Egypt but was defeated at the Battle of the Nile in 47 BCE. Other scholars have identified the co-regent as the future, Scholia on Theocritus 17.128; Pausanias 1.7.3, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHölb2001 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFO'Niel2008 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHolbl2001 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMookerji1988 (, Pliny the Elder, "The Natural History", Chap. The leaders of these missions established a chain of 270 harbour bases along the coasts, some of which grew to be important commercial centres. Ptolemy I had originally supported the establishment of his friend Seleucus I as ruler of Mesopotamia, but relations had cooled after the Battle of Ipsos in 301 BC, when both kings claimed Syria. She was executed by him after his return. Hiero seems to have modelled various aspects of his royal self-representation and perhaps his tax system, the Lex Hieronica on Ptolemaic models.  In 265/4 BC, Areus once again tried to cross the Isthmus of Corinth and aid the beleaguered Athenians, but Antigonus II concentrated his forces against him and defeated the Spartans, with Areus himself among the dead.
Her murder was a gross violation of the temple sanctuary and an act that scandalised Rome.
48-49, Dr. Fabian Kanz, "Arsinoe IV of Egypt: Sister of Cleopatra identified?" , Ptolemy II also had several concubines.  After a prolonged siege, the Athenians were forced to surrender to Antigonus in early 261 BC. This only partially alleviated the situation, so he then sent ships out along the coast to search for more fresh water there.
Arsinoë's year of birth is generally regarded as being between 68 and 63 BC: The Encyclopedia Britannica cites 63 BC, making her 15 at the time of her uprising and defeat against Julius Caesar and 22 at her death, while the researcher Alissa Lyon cites 68 BC making her 27 at her death. They are succeeded by a series that seems to have been minted by the regular Syracusan mint, perhaps on the outbreak of the First Punic War in 265 BC. Particular measures to increase efficiency and income are attested from the start of the Second Syrian War.
He declared that in accordance with Ptolemy XII's will, Cleopatra and Ptolemy would rule Egypt jointly, and in a similar motion restored Cyprus, which had been annexed by Rome in 58 BC, to Egypt's rule and gave it to Arsinoë and her youngest brother, Ptolemy XIV. As long as the two kings lived, this dispute did not lead to war, but with the death of Ptolemy I in 282 and of Seleucus I in 281 BC that changed. Hilke Thür examined the old notes and photographs of the now-missing skull, which was reconstructed using computer technology by forensic anthropologist Caroline Wilkinson to show what the woman may have looked like. Ptolemy, driven from Egypt by the threat of popular insurrection in 58, went to Rome. While sibling-marriage conformed to the traditional practice of the Egyptian pharaohs, it was shocking to the Greeks who considered it incestuous. He pursued an aggressive and expansionist foreign policy with mixed success. 1 hour ago, C++ | ), Aglais (?) , The whole of Egypt was divided into thirty-nine districts, called nomes (portions), whose names and borders had remained roughly the same since early Pharaonic times. However, it was impossible to get an accurate reading since the bones had been handled too many times, and the skull had been lost in Germany during World War II. The festival included a feast for 130 people in a vast royal pavilion and athletic competitions. Cleopatra VII Philopator was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, a Hellenistic kingdom ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty.
The first set seem to have been minted by a Ptolemaic mint, perhaps left there in 276 BC after Pyrrhus of Epirus' withdrawal from Sicily. The adults were killed for their ivory, the children were captured in order to be trained as war elephants. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Arsinoe-IV. , In 253 BC, Ptolemy negotiated a peace treaty, in which he conceded large amounts of territory in Asia Minor to Antiochus. All three of these officials answered to the dioiketes and held equal rank, the idea being that each would act as a check on the others and thus prevent officials from developing regional power bases that might threaten the power of the king. Much of this is conjecture based on loosely related threads without enough evidence to back it. Arsinoe IV.
Steady on", http://insidecatholic.com/Joomla/index.php?option=com_myblog&show=The-BBC-invents-its-own-Cleopatra..html&Itemid=102, "Have Bones of Cleopatra's Murdered Sister Been Found? Berenice IV, eldest daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes of Egypt, sister of the great Cleopatra VII, and ruler of Egypt during her father’s absence in 58–55.
Antiochus I acquiesced to these losses in 279 BC, but began to build up his forces for a rematch.
When his queen  The conquered territory included the rich gold mines at Wadi Allaqi, where Ptolemy founded a city called Berenice Panchrysus and instituted a large-scale mining programme. To date, it has never been definitively proven the skeleton is that of Arsinoë IV. Arsinoe IV, (born c. 63 bc—died 41 bc), youngest daughter of the Macedonian king Ptolemy XII Auletes of Egypt, sister of Cleopatra VII and the kings Ptolemy XIII and XIV. In artistic depictions, Ptolemy II was often depicted with divine attributes, namely the club of Heracles and the elephant-scalp headdress associated with Alexander the Great, while Arsinoe was shown carrying a pair of cornucopiae with a small ram's horn behind her ear.
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